K-2 Learning Results

K-2 Learning Results

This section has been updated to include the new Maine Learning Results, "Parameters for Essential Instruction," which were adopted by the state legislature in 2007. They are presented at the level of Development Standards. The 1997 Performance Indicators have been condensed slightly to conserve space.

The Common Core State Standards were added in November 2012.

Career Preparation  1997
B-2: Preparation necessary for a career of interest.
C-1: Examples of technology applied at home, school, or work.
C-2: Effects of technology on where people choose to live, how they communicate, how they travel, and how they acquire goods and services.

Career and Education Development  2007
A4.   Career and Life Roles
B2.   Skills for Individual/Personal Success in the 21st Century

Common Core State Standards-English Language Arts 2012

The CCSI College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for English Language Arts  and Literacy in History/Social Studies/, Science, and Technical Subjects for Grades K – 5 cover Speaking and Listening, Reading Literature and Informational Texts, Language, Writing, and Foundational Skills (Foundational Skills are for grades K – 2 only.)  All of the standards within the ELA categories may be addressed using the content provided in History of Navigation, depending on the activities implemented by the teacher. Some suggested activities are provided online, but many more are possible, especially using the books listed in the Resource Section. Therefore, it is not possible to closely align CCSI ELA standards with the Web chapters, as any or all of the standards may well apply.

Where to Find More Detailed Maritime History/CCSI ELA Alignment

In contrast to Penobscot Bay History Online, Penobscot Marine Museum’s Maritime History and Literacy Curriculum uses the online maritime history content as the jumping-off point for an actual curriculum. The Curriculum is available as museum-taught units or in the form of “History Kits” that may be rented by classrooms. Each Curriculum unit offers six weeks’ worth of lesson plans including literacy activities, games, and projects designed to help students learn about a topic and practice literacy skills at the same time.  In contrast to the chapters of Penobscot Bay History Online, which are intended to provide an overview of a topic, the Curriculum is sequential, detailed, and activity-based, and includes essential questions and suggested assessments. It is directed at elementary age students. Each unit of the Curriculum includes a listing of specific CCSI ELA and Math objectives that correspond with the activities within that unit. Each unit also includes the relevant Maine Learning Results for other content areas. The online chapters, on the other hand, constitute a resource for teachers, students, and anyone interested in history.

The History of Navigation chapter on the website does not directly correspond to a History Kit; however, the Kit called “The Explorers Come to Maine” includes some material on navigation.

Mathematics  1997
A-2:  Uses of numbers (e.g., prices, recipes, measurement, directions in play.)
E-3:  Positional words to describe the relationship of two or more objects (e.g., over, under, beside, to the left.)
F-3:  Tools for determining length, time, temperature, weight, and capacity; use to solve every day problems.
G-3:  Geometric and numeric relationships.

Mathematics  2007
A3.   Fractions
B1.   Units of time, temperature, and money
C1.   Geometric figures
C2.   Measure length and capacity

Common Core State Standards-Mathematics 2012

Counting and Cardinality

  • Know number names and the count sequence
  • Count to tell the number of objects
  • Compare numbers

Measurement and Data

  • Describe and compare measurable attributes


  • Identify and describe shapes
  • Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes

Grade 1:

Operations and Algebraic Thinking

  • Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction
  • Work with addition and subtraction equations

Measurement and Data

  • Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units
  • Tell and write time
  • Represent and interpret data


  • Reason with shapes and their attributes

Grade 2:

Operations and Algebraic Thinking

  • Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division

Number and Operations in Base Ten

  • Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic

Number and Operations—Fractions

  • Develop understanding of fractions as numbers

Measurement and Data

  • Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time
  • Represent and Interpret data
  • Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition
  • Geometric measurement: recognize perimeter as an attribute of plane figures and distinguish between linear and area measures


  • Reason with shapes and their attributes

Science and Technology  1997
F-1:  Way weather changes.
G-1:  Cycles of day/night and of seasons.
G-3:  Understanding that the sun is one of many stars in the universe; closest star to earth.
I-1:  Ways to describe the motion of an object.
J-1:  Observations using appropriate tools and units of measure.
J-2:  Strategies and materials to use in seeking answers to questions.
J-3:  Use results in a purposeful way, including predictions based on patterns observed.
J-4:  Products invented to solve a problem.
L-2:  Read and write instructions to be followed or to explain procedures.
L-4:  Explain problem-solving processes using verbal, pictorial, and written methods.
L-6:  Use objects and pictures to represent scientific and technological ideas.
M-1:  How legends, stories, and scientific explanations are different ways people try to explain the world.
M-2:  Describe inventions, what they do, how they work, and how they have made life easier.

Science and Technology  2007
A1.   Systems
A4.   Scale
B2.   Skills and Traits of Technological Design
C1.   Understandings of Inquiry
C2.   Understandings about Science and Technology
D1.   Universe and Solar System

Social Studies  1997
A-1:  Maps and other visuals; geographic location, direction, size, and shape.

Social Studies  2007
D1.   Geographic Knowledge, Concepts, Themes, and Patterns
E1.   Historical Knowledge, Concepts, Themes, and Patterns

Visual and Performing Arts  1997
B-5:  Create original works that integrate characteristics and purposes of artworks from different cultures (include own community and culture.)