K-2 Learning Results

This section has been updated to include the new Maine Learning Results, "Parameters for Essential Instruction," which were adopted by the state legislature in 2007. They are presented at the level of Development Standards. The 1997 Performance Indicators have been condensed slightly to conserve space.

The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Math were added in November 2012.

Career Preparation 1997
C-2:     Effects of technology on where people live, communication, travel, and goods and services.
D-3:     Importance of conservation of resources.

Career and Education Development  2007
A4.   Career and Life Roles

Common Core State Standards-English Language Arts 2012

The CCSI College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for English Language Arts  and Literacy in History/Social Studies/, Science, and Technical Subjects for Grades K – 5 cover Speaking and Listening, Reading Literature and Informational Texts, Language, Writing, and Foundational Skills (Foundational Skills are for grades K – 2 only.)  All of the standards within the ELA categories may be addressed using the content provided in Maritime Communities, depending on the activities implemented by the teacher. Some suggested activities are provided online, but many more are possible, especially using the books listed in the Resource Section. Therefore, it is not possible to closely align CCSI ELA standards with the Web chapters, as any or all of the standards may well apply.

Where to Find More Detailed Maritime History/CCSI ELA Alignment

In contrast to Penobscot Bay History Online, Penobscot Marine Museum’s Maritime History and Literacy Curriculum uses the online maritime history content as the jumping-off point for an actual curriculum. The Curriculum is available as museum-taught units or in the form of “History Kits” that may be rented by classrooms. Each Curriculum unit offers six weeks’ worth of lesson plans including literacy activities, games, and projects designed to help students learn about a topic and practice literacy skills at the same time.  In contrast to the chapters of Penobscot Bay History Online, which are intended to provide an overview of a topic, the Curriculum is sequential, detailed, and activity-based, and includes essential questions and suggested assessments. It is directed at elementary age students. Each unit of the Curriculum includes a listing of specific CCSI ELA and Math objectives that correspond with the activities within that unit. Each unit also includes the relevant Maine Learning Results for other content areas. The online chapters, on the other hand, constitute a resource for teachers, students, and anyone interested in history.

The Curriculum unit "Life on Shore in Maritime Communities" is closely aligned with this web chapter.

Health and Physical Education 1997
Health Education
C-3:     Choose healthful foods.

Health and Physical Education  2007
C1.   Environment and Personal Health

Mathematics 1997
A-2:    Uses of numbers (e.g., prices, recipes, measurement, directions in play).
F-1:     Length, time, temperature, weight, and capacity.
G-1:    Recognize, describe, extend, copy, and create patterns.

Mathematics  2007
A1.   Number notation and place value to 1,000
A2.   Add and subtract
A3.   Fractions
B2.   Picture graphs
C1.   Geometric figures
C2.   Measure length and capacity
D3.   Patterns

Common Core State Standards-Math (2012)


Counting and Cardinality

  • Know number names and the count sequence
  • Count to tell the number of objects
  • Compare numbers

 Operations and Algebraic Thinking

  • Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from

 Measurement and Data

  • Describe and compare measurable attributes
  • Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category


  • Identify and describe shapes

Grade 1:

Operations and Algebraic Thinking

  • Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction
  • Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction
  • Add and subtract within 20
  • Work with addition and subtraction equations

 Number and Operations in Base Ten

  • Extend the counting sequence
  • Understand place value
  • Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract

Measurement and Data

  • Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units
  • Represent and interpret data


  • Reason with shapes and their attributes

Grade 2:

Operations and Algebraic Thinking

  • Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction
  • Add and subtract within 20

Number and Operations in Base Ten

  • Extend the counting sequence
  • Understand place value

Measurement and Data

  • Measure and estimate lengths in standard units
  • Relate addition and subtraction to length
  • Work with time and money
  • Represent and interpret data


  • Reason with shapes and their attributes

Science and Technology 1997
E-2:     Physical properties of objects.
F-3:     Changes that are caused by water, snow, wind, and ice.
L-2:     Read and write instructions.
L-5:     Make and read simple graphs.
M-2:    Describe inventions, what they do, how they work, and how they make life easier.
M-5:    How lives would be different without specific inventions or scientific knowledge.

Science and Technology  2007
A1.   Systems
A2.   Models
A3.   Constancy and Change
A4.   Scale
B2.   Skills and Traits of Technological Design
C2.   Understandings about Science and Technology

Social Studies 1997
Civics and Government
B-1:     Understand that all nations have governments.
A-1:    Place individual and family experiences in historical time and place.
B-1:     Similarities between families present and past; daily life present and past.
C-1:     Use artifacts and documents to gather information about the past.
A-1:    Maps and other visuals to describe location, direction, size and shape.
B-1:     Human and physical characteristics of the immediate environment.
A-1:    Identify goods and services, giving examples.
B-1:     Consumer and product.
C-1:     How selected cultures or countries meet basic human needs.
D-1:     Where products come from and how we use them.

Social Studies   2007
Civics and Government
B1.   Knowledge, Concepts, Themes, and Patterns of Civics/Government
B3.   Individual, Cultural, International, and Global Connections in Civics and Government
C1.   Economic Knowledge, Concepts, Themes, and Patterns
C2.   Individual, Cultural, International, and Global Connections in Economics
D1.   Geographic Knowledge, Concepts, Themes, and Patterns
D2.   Individual, Cultural, International, and Global Connections in Geography
E1.   Historical Knowledge, Concepts, Themes, and Patterns
E2.   Individual, Cultural, International, and Global Connections in History

Visual and Performing Arts 1997
A-9:    Use of the arts in daily experiences.

Visual and Performing Arts  2007
E1.   The Arts and History and World History
E2.   The Arts and Other Disciplines