9-12 Learning Results

This section has been updated to include the new Maine Learning Results, "Parameters for Essential Instruction," which were adopted by the state legislature in 2007. They are presented at the level of Development Standards. The 1997 Performance Indicators have been condensed slightly to conserve space. The Common Core State Standards were added in November 2012.

Career Preparation  1997
C-3: How humans adapt technology to their benefit.

Common Core State Standards: Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 2012

Key Ideas and Details

2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source;

  • provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text (grades 9-10)
  • provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas (grades 11-12)

3. Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them (grades 9 – 10)

3. Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain.

Craft and Structure

4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science (grades 9-10)

4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

7. Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g., charts, research data) with qualitative analysis in print or digital text (grades 9 – 10)

7. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem (grades 11 – 12)

Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies

Text Types and Purposes

2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation

Health and Physical Education  1997
A-9: How disease-causing microorganisms, family history, nutrition, and other factors relate to the cause or prevention of disease and other health problems.
B-1: Demonstrate competency in more complex versions of different types of movement forms.

Health and Physical Education  2007
A3.   Diseases/Other Health Problems

Mathematics  1997
C-2: Predict and draw conclusions from charts, tables, and graphs that summarize data from practical situations.
F-1: Use measurement tools and units appropriately and recognize limitations in the precision of the measurement tools.
F-2: Formulas for area, surface area, and volume of many types of figures.
G-1: Create a graph to represent a real-life situation and draw inferences from it.
J-1: Analyze situations where more than one logical conclusion can be drawn from data presented.

Mathematics  2007
B3.   Describe distributions and use descriptive statistics for data
C4.   Surface area and volume of three-dimensional objects

Common Core State Standards-Mathematics 2012


  • Geometric Measurement and Dimension

Statistics and Probability

  • Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data
  • Making Inferences and Justifying Conclusions

Modern and Classical Languages  1997
E-1: Arts of another culture and their meaning to that culture.
E-4: Social, political, and economic issues that affect youth or the community in the culture studied.
F-4: Awareness of relationship between cultural practices: compare selected practices from another culture with their own.
F-5: How tangible products (e.g., food, tools, artwork) and intangible products (e.g., laws, educational systems) define a culture and how they influence other cultures.

Science and Technology  1997
B-4: Impact of human and other activities on the type and pace of change in ecosystems.
C-4: How the human body protects itself against disease and how the body might lose that ability.
K-1: Judge accuracy of alternative explanations by identifying the evidence necessary to support them.
K-2: Explain why agreement among people does not make an argument valid.
K-6: Situations where more than one logical conclusion can be drawn.
L-1: Analyze research or other literature for accuracy in the design and findings of experiments.
L-5: How models do and do not effectively represent the real phenomenon.
M-2: Importance of resource management, controlling environmental impacts, and maintaining natural ecosystems.

Science and Technology  2007
A1.   Systems
A2.   Models
A3.   Constancy and Change
A4.   Scale
C1.   Understanding of Inquiry  
C2.   Understandings about Science and Technology
C3.   Science, Technology, and Society
C4.   History and Nature of Science
E2.   Ecosystems
E5.   Evolution

Social Studies  1997
Civics and Government
B-2: Different jurisdictions and roles of local, state, and federal governments in relation to an important public policy issue.
A-1: Major events and people that characterize each of the significant eras in the United States and world history: The Americas to 1600; The Colonial Era, 1500-1754; The Revolutionary Era, 1754-1783; The Early Modern World 1450-1800.
B-5: How different ways of knowing and believing have influenced history and culture.
B-7: Benefits and conflicts resulting from encounters among cultures.
C-3: Compare competing historical narratives by contrasting different historians’ choice of questions, use and choice of sources, perspectives, beliefs, and points of view. Geography
A-2: How maps reflect economic, social, and political policy decision making.
A-3: How cultural and technological features can link or divide regions.
B-3: How technologies contribute to cultural sharing and separation, and identify examples of the spread of cultural traits.

Social Studies  2007
A1.   Researching and Developing Positions on Current Social Studies Issues
A2.   Making Decisions Using Social Studies Knowledge and Skills
A3.   Taking Action Using Social Studies Knowledge and Skills
Civics and Government
B3.   Individual, Cultural, International, and Global Connections in Civics and Government
C2.   Individual, Cultural, International, and Global Connections in Economics
D1.   Geographic Knowledge, Concepts, Themes, and Patterns
D2.   Individual, Cultural, International, and Global Connections in Geography
E1.   Historical Knowledge, Concepts, Themes, and Patterns
E2.   Individual, Cultural, International, and Global Connections in History

Visual and Performing Arts  1997
B-3: Common characteristics and purposes of visual and/or performing art works across time and among cultural and social groups, and how these characteristics and purposes fulfill social, religious, or ceremonial functions.
B-4: Create works that reflect concepts, theories, approaches, and styles from their own and other cultures.

Visual and Performing Arts  2007
E1.   The Arts and History and World Cultures
E2.   The Arts and Other Disciplines

Grades 9-12